Chapter 16 The
Respiratory System Expectations
By the end of this chapter you should be able to:
1. Define the following words and be able to tell their importance in
the human body: External nares, nasal cavity, nasal septum, nasal chonchae,
paranasal sinuses, rhinitis, sinusitis, pharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx,
laryngopharynx, larynx, otitis media, pharyngeal tonsils, palatine tonsils,
lingual tonsils, tonsillitis, larynx, epiglottis, vocal folds, trachea,
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, tracheostomy, primary
bronchi, lungs, apex, base, visceral pleura, parietal pleura, pleural
fluid, pleurisy, bronchioles, alveoli, alveolar sacs, alveoli, Type
II cells, surfactant, respiration, pulmonary ventilation, external respiration,
respiratory gas transport, internal respiration, inspiration, expiration,
diaphragm, external intercostals, intrapulmonary volume (IPV), intrapulmonary
pressure (Pip), asthma, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, atelectasis,
pneumothorax, nonrespiratory air movements, tidal volume (TV), inspiratory
reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume,
vital capacity (VC), bicarbonate ion, oxyhemoglobin, carbonic acid,
hypoxia, carbon monoxide poisoning, phrenic nerves, hyperventilation,
cyanosis, hypoventilation, apnea, dyspnea, COPD, emphysema, squamous
cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma (oat cell carcinoma),
2. The following reading is assigned to be read with the goal of being able
to discuss/explain the information contained in them.
3.The meaning of the following root words/affixes should be learned:
alveo-, bronch-, cric-, epi-, hem-
4. Dissect a preserved specimen to isolate and identify the following
Right Primary bronchus
Left Primary bronchus
Lungs (Right and Left)
You will be tested on this information in a practical format.
You may access the directions for dissecting these structures by clicking
on the Dissection button to the left.
5. Explain how the respiratory muscles cause volume changes that lead
to air flow into and out of the lungs.
6. Given the events of pulmonary ventilation, be able to put them in
7. Be able to list all the organs in the respiratory system from the
external nares to the alveoli and give their functions.
8. Describe several nonrespiratory air movements an explain how they
modify or differ from normal respiratory air movements.
9. Describe the process of gas exchange between the blood and the tissues
including important reactions that have to occur at the tissue level
and at the alveoli.
10. Explain the physiological reason why you can not voluntarily stop
breathing. Include blood pH homeostasis in your answer.
11. Name several physical factors that influence respiratory rate.
12. Explain the relative importance of the respiratory gases (O2 and
CO2) in modifying the rate and depth of breathing.
13. List the three most common types of lung cancer.
14. Compare and contrast chronic bronchitis and pneumonia.
15. Define TV, IRV, ERV, and VC. Give their relationship in equation
16. Describe the form in which O2 and CO2 are transported in the blood.
17 Be able to recognize and explain the physiological symptoms of: emphysema,
chronic bronchitis, COPD
18. To review for the test, I recommend the following questions:
in "Hole's" on pages 457 and 458: 1-3,5,8-14,18,20-26
19. The online review activities found by following the Respiratory
links and clicking the links for our textbooks are very good.
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