Digestion and Nutrition
By the end of this chapter you should be able
1. Define and tell the importance of the following vocab terms: alimentary
canal, digest, absorb, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, labia,
hard palate, soft palate, uvula, frenulum, palatine tonsil, lingual
tonsil, mastication, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, mucosa,
submucosa, serosa, visceral peritoneum, parietal peritoneum, mesentery,
stomach, cardoesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter, rugae, greater
curvature, lesser curvature, gastric juice, chief cells, pepsinogen,
parietal cells, intrinsic factor, gastrin, chyme, small intestine,
duodenum, ileocecal valve, jejunum, ileum, pancreatic duct, bile duct,
microvilli, villi, large intestine, cecum, (vermiform) appendix, colon,
rectum, anal canal, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending
colon, sigmoid colon, anus, haustra, pancreas, liver, bile, common
hepatic duct, gallbladder, jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, parotid
gland, submandibular gland, sublingual glands, salivary amylase, deciduous
teeth, incisors, premolar, molar, crown, root, gingival, enamel, neck,
cementum, periodontal (membrane0 ligament, dentin, pulp cavity, root
canal, injestion, propulsion, paeristalsis, mechanical digestion,
chemical digestion, absorption, defecation, deglutition, pancreatic
amylase, brush border enzymes, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase,
bile salts, pancratice lipase, hydrochloric acid, peptic ulcer, heartburn,
hiatal hernia, rennin, vomiting, secretin, cholecystokinin, pancreatitis,
feces, mass movements, defecation reflex, diarrhea, constipation,
2. The meaning of the following root words/affixes should be learned:
chym-, decidu-, gastr-, hepat-, lingu-, nutri-, peri-, pyl-, vill-
3. The following reading is assigned to be read with the goal of being able
to discuss/explain the information contained in them.
4. Make drawings of esophagus, intestine, and
liver tissues. You must do drawings of 3 different magnifications
labeling the following where they occur in the drawings: stratified
squamous non-keratinized, muscularis externa, lumen, goblet cells
(in intestine, reticular connective tissue (In Liver) and simple columnar
cells. Also on the drawings of the esophagus and intestine, label
the mucosa, submucosa, muscula rlayer, and serosa. In your notes you
should include magnification of each drawing, characteristics of identification
as well as places you find them in your body. These drawings will
be due when you take the test over the digestive system. Your drawings
and notes will be graded using the same rubric your histology “notebook”.
5. Identify the structures/ tissues/cells listed in #2 in microscopic
images as part of the lab practical.
6 Identify the structures labeled Figure 15.8 on p. 398 and figure
15.9 on p. 399.
7. Describe the sites of digestion of the macromolecules (carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) as well as the enzymes necessary
for their digestion.
8. Name the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory digestive
organs and identify each on an appropriate diagram or model.
9. Identify the overall function of the digestive system as digestion
and absorption of foodstuffs, and describe the general activities
of each digestive system organ.
10. Describe the composition and functions of saliva.
11. Explain how villi aid digestive processes in the small intestine.
12. Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecation.
13. List the major enzymes or enzyme groups produced by the digestive
organs or accessory glands and name the foodstuffs on which they act.
14. Name the end products of protein, fat, carbohydrate digestion.
15. Explain why bile and pancreatic lipases are necessary for digestion
16. Correctly put the organs of the alimentary canal in order that
food passes through them.
17. Dissect a preserved cat and identify the following structures
in a practical.
18. I recommend the following review questions
to help you prepare for the test:
I also recommend you try some of the online review activities associated
with our textbook websites. You can access them through the links button to the
left then clicking on the appropriate book/chapter link.